PREDICTING THE GLOBAL COASTAL OCEAN

STRATEGY AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

A PROPOSAL TO THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE OF THE OCEAN

ver. 7.0

FOREWORD

The document (ver. 7.0) describes the Science and Implementation Strategy for a Programme called “Predicting the Global Coastal Ocean” dedicated to partially fulfill the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development objectives of a predicted, healthy and safe ocean. The Programme acronym is CoastPredict.

In January 2020 the first Science Strategy was presented at the UN Ocean Decade Workshop in Venice. Between February and June 2020, a consultation was open at the following web page: https://www.coastpredict.org/. Almost 200 scientists, practitioners and managers from academia, government and the private sector from 36 countries have endorsed the initiative with signatures and comments.

Using inputs from the collected signatures and discussion by the initial steering committee of the Programme, this revised document was prepared adding a draft Implementation Strategy.

The initial steering Group

Nadia Pinardi – UNIBO (IT)

Burkard Baschek – HZG (DE)

Holger Brix – HZG (DE)

Kim Cobb  – GaTech (USA)

Giovanni Coppini – CMCC (IT)

Pierre De Mey – LEGOS (FR)

Emanuele Di Lorenzo – GaTech (USA)

Villy Kourafalou – Univ. of Miami (USA)

Rosalia Santoleri – CNR-ISMAR (IT)

Joaquin Tintore – SOCIB&IMEDEA (ES)

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY

HTTPS://WWW.COASTPREDICT.ORG

BACKGROUND

The basic concept of a Global Coastal Ocean was defined about a decade ago in five Volumes of The Sea (Vols. 10 to 14, Harvard University Press). The revised definition is:

  • the coastal ocean – that area, extending inshore from the estuarine mouths to river catchments affected by saltwaters and offshore from the surf zone to the continental shelf and slope where waters of continental origins meet open ocean currents.
 

In other words, the coastal ocean is the interface area where land, hydrology, ocean and atmosphere interact in a multiplicity of space and time scales and give rise to the highest ocean productivity and the strongest interaction between fresh waters, including glacier waters, and salt waters.

We now believe that, after thirty years of development in ocean predictions and operational oceanography, we are capable of understanding and predicting this complex zone where most of the human population live and the impacts of climate change will be amplified.

Most sustainable development goals (SDGs) consider the socio-economic and environmental problems connected within this crucial area. All these goals require increased knowledge and advanced predictions of the global coastal ocean in order to provide solutions for the management and sustainable exploitation of the resources. The Programme “Predicting the Global Coastal Ocean”, shortly CoastPredict, has been designed to substantially improve our capacity to address the SDG targets.

CoastPredict contributes to the UN Ocean Decade objective of “A predicted ocean” by improving our understanding of the coastal area processes using a multi-disciplinary and integrated approach and focusing on the many common worldwide features of the coastal ocean that we need to understand for knowledge based and sustainable management. The major science challenge is to advance the understanding of the role played by the coastal ocean in the global ocean dynamics, from short time scale events to climate.

Observing systems and numerical models will be developed to drive a transformative change on how to predict the coastal ocean at global scales, bringing together diverse scientific, technological and socio-economic communities to co-design the system at the global level.

Last but not least, the Oceanobs19 Conference statement (http://www.oceanobs19.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/OO19-Conference-Statement_online.pdf) considered two high priority efforts for the next decade:

  1. Advance the frontiers of ocean observing capabilities from the coast to the deep ocean, … at the boundaries between … land, … freshwater, and human populated areas;
  2. Improve the uptake of ocean data in models for understanding and forecasting of the Earth system.

The UN Decade of the Oceans initiative is a unique opportunity to advance the science of the global coastal ocean and the innovative solutions to its challenging problems.

THE PROGRAMME IN A NUTSHELL

CoastPredict will coordinate scientific advancements and technological innovations following three pillars:

CoastPredict outcomes and outputs will be:

  1. Integrated and comprehensive knowledge of the global coastal ocean from short time scale events to climate, including impacts of societal drivers;
  2. Integration of coastal and open ocean observing and modelling systems;
  3. Improved, multidisciplinary and extended range predictive capabilities for the coastal zone;
  4. Innovative and sustainable applications for coastal solutions/services.

DRIVING SOCIETAL NEEDS

The 17 SDGs are the primary drivers for CoastPredict.

In summary:

  • Coastal urbanization exacerbates the need for advanced monitoring and predictions of coastal inundation, of coastal pollution, of coastal habitat health and multi-hazards;
  • Climate change and related extremes are affecting population resilience at the coasts, thus coastal impact studies need to focus on extended range predictions, considering new monitoring systems, sea level rise and other coastal climate trends;
  • Sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S)­­ predictions in the coastal zones need to be improved through a deeper understanding of the multi-scale interactions and processes occurring at the coasts and along the shelf/open ocean region;
  • Coastal ocean health issues require an innovative combination of observing and numerical prediction systems in order to evaluate solutions and protection measures;
  • Assessments of policy target effectiveness in the coastal areas, and the connected catchments require the development of innovative Earth System numerical modelling with appropriate coupling between the meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic factors along the coasts.
  • Capacity Development supporting diverse capabilities and cultures

 

The contribution that CoastPredict could offer to the 17 SDG targets is discussed in the Table below.

SDG

Contributions by CoastPredict

Sustainable blue economy using a science-based approach that considers coastal predictions for management of resources and environmental protection.

Fishery and mariculture rely on the accuracy of the “predicted” ocean.

Coastal oceans are essential components of human’s well-being and coastal ocean predictions help to preserve this natural resource.

Coastal ocean literacy is a pre-requisite for responsible citizenship at public, private and corporate levels.

Coastal ocean solutions will consider diversity issues at all levels of the CoastPredict development.

Predict salinization of drinkable waters, understand and predict salt intrusions in rivers, develop integrated water management plans in the coastal areas.

Improve the use of renewable energy from the coastal zone winds, currents (including slope currents), waves and the ecosystem resources using the predicted ocean products.

Promote safe working conditions for the coastal ocean communities using ocean prediction products.

Innovative coastal tourism, mariculture, transport, gas/oil extraction, safe transport and advanced port management using coastal prediction products.

Promote the inclusive participation of the coastal communities in the design and implementation of solutions, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status.

Reliable and extended coastal inundation predictions, hazard mapping of coastal pollution from different sources eliminating dumping in the coastal zone.

Connect the “predicted coastal ocean” to scientific and technological capacity to move toward more sustainable seafood production and consumption in the global coastal ocean.

Promote downscaling of climate change scenarios in the coastal zone, designing new coupled ocean-atmosphere-land-hydrology at the local scales and define impacts of different scenarios, including coastal sea level changes and extreme events at the coasts.

Protect and restore coastal habitats, develop nature-based solutions for coastal erosion using coastal prediction products. Develop early warning systems for multi-hazards on the coasts.

Improve the understanding of aquifer water flows and the management of the adverse effects of coastal area saltwater intrusions.

Analyze and implement plans for coastal transboundary water problems, enhancing the collaboration of countries in setting the observing and modelling system that will enable water resources and their part of the global coastal ocean to be peacefully managed.

Mobilize resources for the co-design between scientists and coastal stakeholders on the science, solutions/services and capacity in the global coastal ocean.

DRIVING SCIENCE IDEAS

The role of the coasts in the large-scale ocean circulation has been recognized since the beginning of modern oceanography and meteorology. Coasts are the waveguide for tidal waves and Kelvin waves, and play a key role in the dissipation of ocean energy.  They are sources of energy for baroclinic Rossby waves crossing the ocean basins and accumulating energy in western boundary currents. Coasts shape specific upwelling/downwelling processes and are regions of freshwater influence from rivers and glaciers. Coasts interact strongly with slope currents, and they are the sites where marine biology, biogeochemistry and physics connect to produce the largest atmospheric CO2 sinks.

Despite these key issues, the “generic” understanding of the global coastal ocean is still lagging behind other topics in oceanography, probably because of the fragmented scientific approach related to the varying coastal specificities. However, Robinson and Brink (2010) attempted to define the concept of the “global coastal ocean”, highlighting that a common scientific approach to studying the different coastal areas is possible. This is the key idea for this Programme.

In order to achieve the goal of understanding the different but similar “global coastal ocean” areas several scientific questions need to be investigated, including:

  • The scientific definition of the “global coastal ocean”, its physical and biochemical role in the large scale ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics;
  • The understanding of factors that affect the accuracy and limits on the predictability of the coupled atmo-hydro-land-ocean system at the coasts and the development of Limited Area Coastal Earth System Modelling;
  • The sediment-light-nutrient-physics nexus in the coastal zone, its connection to the nutrient limitation paradigm in the open ocean and its effects on the predictability of coastal marine food webs and coastal carbon cycle;
  • The optimal design of a multi-scale multidisciplinary global observing system which considers both the open ocean and the coastal observations;
  • The development of new technologies and methodologies capable to resolve spatial and temporal scales of coastal processes for monitoring the essential ocean variables.
  • The development of a coastal observation data management system to be synchronized and harmonized with the developments of the Ocean Data Information System (ODIS) being developed during the Decade;
  • The methods for trusted data/information and interoperability across the value chain;
  • The establishment of limited area modelling (nesting, downscaling) for increased process inclusion and resolution at the land-ocean interface and offshore, including probabilistic and ensemble coastal forecasting;
  • The optimization of data assimilation methods in the coastal ocean for ocean predictions, multi-scale capability of data assimilation algorithms, usage in unstructured grid models;
  • The investigation and predictions of the salinization of inland coastal waters, both surface and underground, together with coastal erosion and geomorphological changes;
  • The development of coastal urban meteorology and oceanography concepts and tools;
  • Sustainable Mariculture and Capture Fisheries;
  • The economic, ecological and societal carrying capacity of the coastal ocean

 

Some of these science challenges will be matched to specific solutions and services to be developed by Projects as proposed in the Implementation Strategy offered in the next section.

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY

HTTPS://WWW.COASTPREDICT.ORG

IMPLEMENTATION CONCEPT

Solutions/services for the global coastal areas rarely involve the setting of a monitoring and prediction system to assess impacts from events to climate trends. For example, solutions for storm surge predictions considered mainly depth-integrated modelling thus preventing the direct consideration of the climate change sea level trend due to warming/freshening of the oceans. In addition, solutions/services have not been adequately intercompared between coastal areas. For example, prediction and monitoring systems for the loss of coastal coral reefs across the world oceans has been different for no specific reasons.

The CoastPredict initiative has, among others, the challenge to define coastal areas of the global ocean where similar solutions can be implemented, tested and evolved or, on the contrary, where different solutions are required. The first attempt to classify the different coastal areas of the world ocean was done by Robinson and Brink (2010) and here is shown in Fig.1.

This coarse grain classification already gives an idea that four predictive systems, solving issues of societal importance, using advanced science understanding and solutions, could be required. The requirements could be different in terms of both observing and modelling systems as well as for the predictability. This is the basic idea which will guide the implementation of CoastPredict: starting from societal needs develop solutions in similar and/or contrasting ocean areas and understand what the different requirements are, demonstrate the solution effectiveness and build capacity in the local communities.

One of the key concepts to be used in building the programme implementation is the “Ocean Value Chain” process (see Fig. 2). CoastPredict will enhance the “basic information infrastructure” because it will develop integrated open-to-coastal-ocean prediction services that will be based on openly available large scale prediction information. The coastal predictions will set the fitness-for-use of the global scale open ocean information and will address the gaps in observing and forecasting for the coastal areas. The Programme will also improve services/solutions by extensively using the information products of the coastal prediction systems to arrive to fit-for-purpose information for the end-user communities.

The “basic” and “tailored” information data products will undergo different levels of quality assessment during the duration of CoastPredict to arrive at the end to establish standards for quality assurance in the different parts of the Ocean Value Chain.

Fig. 2 Schematic of the “Ocean Value Chain” process

THE STEERING STRUCTURE

For such a large initiative, we need a solid coordination and management structure that will monitor and ensure the activities are carried out on time.

For the UN Ocean Decade there is not a specific structure recommended so we devised one that should have the capability to overview the work for the entire 2021-2030 period.

Fig. 2 The management structure of Coastpredict

Here we describe the role of each structural group in Fig. 2:

  1. Steering committee: it is composed by scientists and managers from academia, government and the private sector that also belong to the working groups. It is keeping the overall view of the program and the coordination of the projects. It is chaired by a Chair and co-Chair who are nominated by the Steering Committee at its first meeting and they will be in charge for 3 years with the possibility of a 2 years re-nomination. The Committee will be responsible for drafting the updates of the general science and implementation strategy in consultation with the Advisory Group. It will include representatives of other linked UN Decade Projects.
  2. Advisory Group: it is composed of representatives of IOC and WMO structural elements, the Unesco International Hydrology Program, the United Nation Environment Program (UNEP) and international programmes such as GEO, Geo-BluePlanet, OceanPredict, WCRP. Its aim is to advice on the strategic implementation and have an external guidance on the Program. Some participants to the Advisory group could also be part of the Management Group.
  3. Management Group: it has the mission to follow the everyday activities of the Programme, connect with sponsors and the parent organizations, IOC and WMO. It is chaired by the Chair and the Co-chair of the Steering Committee. It will be composed of representatives of the Steering Committee, in particular the coordinators of the Projects, and representatives of the Advisory Group (as many as necessary). The composition will be evaluated every three years and changes will be approved by the Steering Committee and the Advisory Group.
  4. Communication Office: it will work under the guidance of the Steering Committee to develop activities with strategic communication It will advise all teams on best practices as it relates to strategic communications.
  5. Working groups: these groups have the mission to discuss methodologies, best practices, technical issues and steering of the projects. The working groups should be composed of the coordinators of the projects and other project partners that could help the maintain efficient cross-disciplinary and cross-project activities.

INITIAL THEMES FOR PROJECTS

Several ”Decade Projects” should be created on the basis of scientific and implementation challenges in the contrasting coastal areas.

At this moment, five crucial themes are envisaged:

  1. The physical-sedimentary-biological-chemical coastal ocean dynamics and their predictability. This project tries to solve the nexus of the role of the coastal ocean in the large scale ecosystem dynamics.
  2. Multi-hazard coastal prediction systems. This project develops the integrated observing and modelling system for forecasting capable to sustain innovative early warning systems and hazard mapping from extreme events to S2S time scales.
  3. Climate change predictions in the coastal zone. This project develops the earth system coastal modelling for the long term predictions in the coastal areas, developing the validation/calibration and assimilation methods in order to keep track of uncertainties and arrive at the local coastal scales.
  4. Predictions and scenarios for coastal protection (incl. Nature Based Solutions). This project develops the observational data collection requirements and the methodologies of multi-scale, multi-model predictions for assessing engineering and natural solutions for the protection of the coastal zone from adverse effects of land based pressures and climate change trends.
  5. Forecasting and applications for sustainable coastal economic activities. This project connects prediction products to socio-economic activities toward sustainable development. Mariculture, local fisheries, tourism, ports, shelf renewable energy production socio-economic data should be coupled with multi-hazard early warning systems for safety and to climate change predictions to maintain sustainable levels of exploitation of resources.

Projects should be built on the basis of these themes and proposed by the S&T Committee and Advisory Group at their first meeting.

Projects should be formulated following some basic principles, i.e.:

  • Have a clear stakeholder engagement plan
  • Have at least three ocean areas of implementation and study (relocatable solutions are essential), one of which in a developing country.
  • Include data management and best practices for open access data
  • Provide end-to-end demonstrations
  • Multi-national, multi-disciplinary and diversity balanced groups
  • Make an effort to use new methodologies and technologies within the different aspects of the project;
  • Include a plan for after-the-project continued development of the basic information infrastructure upgrades and solutions/services with adequate public/private partnerships;
  • Include capacity building and ocean literacy activities.

PHASING THE IMPLEMENTATION

CoastPredict will normally have 5 phases. They approximately will consist of:

  1. a First Phase (1,5 years, 2020-2021) where the Strategic science and implementation Plan will be completed, the steering and advisory committees formed and the first round Projects (FR Projects) designed. Links with potential financial partners will be scrutinized in this phase.
  2. a Second Phase (3 years, 2022-2024) where the FR Projects will be carried out in different world ocean coastal areas;
  3. a Third phase (2 years, 2025-2026) where the FR Project outcomes will be reviewed by scientists and stakeholders driving the design of the follow-up Projects for the next three years;
  4. a Fourth phase (3 years, 2027-2029) where second round (SR) Projects, including revised FR and new Projects, will be carried out;
  5. a Fifth phase (2030) planning the further exploitation of the CoastPredict outcomes.


The duration of the FR and SR Projects will be decided on the basis of the scope and funding required. Every Phase will include extensive dissemination and communication activity.

LINKED INITIATIVES

The initial steering Group has entertained several conversations with other International and UN Decade initiatives and received positive feedback for the coordination among the projects.

The outstanding parent program of CoastPredict is OceanPredict (http://oceanpredict19.org/) which in the past twenty years has organized the large scale world ocean predictions standards and developed a group of Coastal Ocean and Shelf Sea Task Team that started the international coordination for coastal predictions. The OceanPredict Governing Board was supportive of CoastPredict and key scientists from OceanPredict will be sitting in the CoastPredict Steering Committee.

The Global Ecosystem for Ocean Solutions (GEOS) UN Decade proposed Programme, is coordinated with CoastPredict: Emanuele Di Lorenzo is part of the initial Steering Committee for CoastPredict and Nadia Pinardi will sit in the GEOS Steering committee to ensure maximum coordination.

The programme “Developing Ocean Observing Capacity During the UN Decade for Ocean Sciences for Sustainable Development: A Community Prospectus” has publicly supported CoastPredict on the web page comments and its leaders have signed the CoastPredict web page. The key actors of this program will be inserted in the CoastPredict Steering Committee.

Last but not least, informal presentations at IOC (Expert Team of Operational Ocean Forecasting Services meeting, December 2019) and at WMO have paved the way to coordinate CoastPredict with the relevant structures of the two organizations.

SIGNATURES FROM COASTPREDICT WEB PAGE

1.  Nadia Pinardi, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Italy
2.  Joaquín Tintoré,  SOCIB, Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System,  Spain
3.  Rosalia Santoleri, CNR-ISMAR, Italy
4.  Villy Kourafalou, University of Miami, USA
5.  Pierre De Mey-Frémaux, DR CNRS, Ponts’80, LEGOS, France
6.  Giovanni Coppini, Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change Foundation, Italy
7.  Burkard Baschek, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany
8.   Holger Brix, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany
9.  Jan Petzold, University of Hamburg, Germany
10.  Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
11.  Enrique Alvarez Fanjul, Puertos del Estado, Spain
12.  Yannis N. Krestenitis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
13.  Amel Hamza-Chaffai/Sfax University/TUNISIA
14.  Barak Herut, Israel Oceanographic & Limnological Research, Israel
15.  Jelena Knezevic, MED POL-UNEP/MAP
16.  Jacob Silverman, IOLR, Israel
17.  Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Mercator Ocean International, France
18.  Alan F. Blumberg, Jupiter Intelligence, 251 W 30TH ST NEW YORK, NY 10001-2810
19.  Cem Serimozu, Middle East Technical University Institute of Marine Sciences, Turkey
20.  Senia Nhamo, University of South Africa, South Africa
21.  M. Carmen Garcia-Martinez, Instituto Español de Oceanografia, Spain
22.  George Petihakis, Hellenic Cenrte for Marine Research (HCMR), Greece
23.  George Zodiatis, ORION Joint Research and Develpment Center, Cyprus
24.  Farshid Daryabor, Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change Foundation, Italy
25.  Sam Mafwila, SANUMARC, University of Namibia
26.  Michela De Dominicis, National Oceanography Centre, UK
27.  Jerry Blackford, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK
28.  Prof. J. Icarus Allen, Chief Executive, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK
29.  Stefania A. Ciliberti, Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change Foundation, Italy
30.  Luc Vandenbulcke, Univ. Liege, Belgium
31.  Murat Gunduz, Dokuz Eylul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology, Turkey
32.  Mehmet Ilicak, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
33.  Guimei LIU, National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center, China
34.  Simona Masina Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change, Italy
35.  Mauro Cirano, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil
36.  Andrea Storto, Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, Italy
37.  Joaquim Garrabou, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Spain
38.  Vassilios Vervatis, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
39.  George Kallos, WeMET P.C., Greece
40.  Youyu Lu, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada
41.  Hao WEI, Tianjin University, P.R.China
42.  Bjorn Backeberg, Deltares, Netherlands
43.  Aldo Drago, Head of the Physical Oceanography Group, University of Malta, Malta
44.  Marta Coll, Institute of Marine Science, Barcelona, Spain
45.  Pierre Lermusiaux, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA
46.  Aida Alvera-Azcárate, University of Liege, Belgium
47.  Manuel Vargas-Yáñez, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Spain
48.  Herman Hummel, North Sea Research Centre, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Netherlands
49.  Manuel Espino Infantes, Maritime Engineering Laboratory, Politechnical University of Catalonia, Spain
50.  Dr Lucy Bricheno, UK National Oceanography Centre, UK
51.  Sara Fowell, National Oceanography Centre, UK
52.  Yangyang Zhao, State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science (Xiamen University), China
53.  Flávio Martins, CIMA-Marine and Environmental Research Centre, University of Algarve, Portugal
54.  Tom Kompier, Strategic Adviser, Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, Netherlands
55.  Gianmaria Sannino, ENEA – Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l’energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile, Italy
56.  Ananda Pascual, IMEDEA(CSIC-UIB), Mallorca, Spain
57.  Andrea Valentini, Arpae Emilia-Romagna, Italy
58.  Evangelos Spyrakos, University of Stirling, UK
59.  Marilaure Gregoire, Liege University, Belgium
60.  Ibrahim Hoteit, KAUST, Saudi Arabia
61.  Luca A. van Duren, Deltares, the Netherlands
62.  Rosa Balbín, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Spain
63.  Kristy Tiampo, Earth Science and Observation Center, CIRES, University of Colorado Boulder, USA
64.  Marco Zavatarelli, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Physics and Astronomy Dept., Bologna, Italy
65.  Guillaume Charria, LOPS/Ifremer, France
66.  Maristella Berta, CNR-ISMAR, Italy
67.  Roberta Sciascia, CNR-ISMAR, Italy
68.  Marcello Magaldi, CNR-ISMAR, Italy
69.  Giuseppe Manzella, ETT SpA and Historical Oceanography Society – La Spezia, Italy
70.  Annalisa Griffa, ISMAR, CNR, Italy
71.  Christophe Delacourt, CNRS, France
72.  Joanna Staneva, HZG, Germany
73.  Parvathy K G, VBU, Sweden
74.  Shuqun Cai, State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography,South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, China
75.  Jun She, Danish Meterological Institute, Denmark
76.  Louise Darroch, British Oceanographic Data Centre, National Oceanography Centre, UK
77.  Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany
78.  Karin Margretha Húsgarð Larsen, Havstovan (Faroe Marine Research Institute), Faroe Islands
79.  Vicente Fernandez, EuroGOOS AISBL, Belgium
80.  Claire Dufau, Collecte Localisation Satellites (CLS), France
81.  Hjálmar Hátún, Faroe Marine Research Institute, Faroe Islands
82.  John Siddorn, Head Ocean Forecasting, Met Office, UK
83.  Kai Christensen, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Norway
84.  Adolfo Uriarte, AZTI-BRTA, Spain
85.  Sina Bold, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Coastal Research, Germany
86.  Magdy Abdelwahed The General Authority For Fish Resources Development Egypt
87.  Shiliang Shan, Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
88.  Arthur Capet, MAST-FOCUS, ULiege
89.  Baptiste Mourre, SOCIB, Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System, Spain
90.  Sébastien Legrand, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium
91.  Georg Umgiesser, ISMAR-CNR, Venezia, Italy
92.  Ivane PAIRAUD, Ifremer, France
93.  Lorinc Meszaros, Deltares, The Netherlands
94.  Anna Rubio, AZTI – Basque Research and Technology Alliance, Spain
95.  Julien Mader, AZTI – Basque Research & Technology Alliance, Spain
96.  Francisco Javier Campuzano, MARETEC – Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
97.  Laura Ursella, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica
98.  Jason Holt, National Oceanography Centre, UK
99.  Ramiro Neves, Unilisboa, Portugal
100.  Simona Simoncelli, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy
101.  Ivan Federico, Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change Foundation, Italy
102.  Veronique Creach, CEFAS, UK
103.  Tomasz Dabrowski, Marine Institute, Ireland
104.  Antonio Navarra, CMCC, Italy
105.  Yannis Androulidakis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
106.  Vanessa Cardin – OGS, Istituto Nazionale Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Italy
107.  Paul M. DiGiacomo, NOAA/NESDIS, USA
108.  Alejandro Orfila IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Spain
109.  Katerina Katerina Spanoudaki, IACM-FORTH, Greece
110.  Nikolaos A. Kampanis, Research Director, Head Coastal & Marine Research Lab, FORTH, Greece
111.  Elena Mauri, OGS, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy
112.  Konstantinos Topouzelis, University of the Aegean, Department of Marine Sciences, Greece
113.  Bjorn Backeberg, Deltares, Netherlands
114.  Raghu Murtugudde, University of Maryland, USA
115.  Lars R. Hole, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Norway
116.  Lars Nerger, Alfred-Wegener-Institute, Germany
117.  Cosimo Solidoro Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica, Italy
118.  Donata Canu, OGS Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Italy
119.  Anna Teruzzi, OGS, Italy
120.  George Alexandrakis Coastal & Marine Research Lab Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Greece
121.  Stefano Querin, OGS – Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica, Italy
122.  Stefano Salon, OGS – Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Italy
123.  Gianpiero Cossarini, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Italy
124.  Paolo Lazzari, OGS – Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Italy
125.  Estelle Obligis, EUMETSAT, Germany
126.  Antonio Novellino, ETT, Italy
127.  Tal Ezer, Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, ODU, Norfolk, VA, USA
128.  François Montagner, EUMETSAT, Germany
129.  Ali Aydogdu, CMCC, Italy
130.  Emily Smail, GEO Blue Planet Initiative, USA
131.  Moninya Roughan UNSW, Sydney Australia
132.  Colette Kerry, UNSW, Australia
133.  Pauline Simpson, International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the IOC, Belgium
134.  X. San Liang, Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, China
135.  Cecilie Mauritzen, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Norway
136.  Gail Scowcroft, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island
137.  HeeSook Kang, University of Miami, USA
138.  Peter Minnett, University of Miami, USA
139.  Tamay Ozgokmen, University of Miami, USA
140.  Nguyen Ba Thuy, National hydrometeorological forecasting center of Vietnam
141.  Nguyen Manh Dung, the National Center for Hydro-Meteorological Forecasting, Vietnam
142.  Pham Khanh Ngoc, Vietnam National Center for Hydro-meteorological Forecasting, Vietnam
143.  Guldborg Søvik, Institute of Marine Research, Norway
144.  Songjie He, Louisiana State University, USA
145.  Guillaume Rieucau Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, USA
146.  Young Rae Choi, Florida International University, USA
147.  Brian Dzwonkowski, University of South Alabama, USA
148.  Steven L Dykstra, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, USA
149.  Amilcar E. Calzada Estrada, Meteorology Institute of Cuba, Cuba
150.  Stephan Dick, Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), Germany
151.  Emlyn Jones, CSIRO, Australia
152.  Yoonja Kang, Chonnam National University, South Korea
153.  Haosheng Huang, Louisiana State University, USA
154.  Yoonja Kang, Chonnam National University, South Korea
155.  Haosheng Huang, Louisiana State University, USA
156.  Do Dinh Chien, IMHEN, Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change, Viet Nam
157.  Doan Quang Tri, Vietnam Journal of Hydrometeorology, Viet Nam Meteorological and Hydrological Administration
158.  Nguyen Kim Cuong, VNU University of Science, Hanoi, Vietnam
159.  Kirsten Wilmer-Becker, Met Office, UK
160.  Alexander Barth, University of Liege, Belgium
161.  John C. WELLS, Ritsumeikan University, Japan
162.  Antonio Bonaduce, Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Norway
163.  Christopher A. Edwards, University of California Santa Cruz, United States
164.  Nikolaus Wirth, Socib, Spain
165.  Lucy Bricheno, NOC, UK
166.  Xavier Garcia, Institute of Marine Sciences, CSIC, Spain
167.  Matias Gabriel Dinapoli, CIMA (UMI IFAECI/CNRS-CONICET-UBA), Argetina
168.  Giuliana Berden, Buenos Aires University, Argentina   
169.  Claudia Gloria Simionato, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmósfera (CIMA/CONICET-UBA) – French-Argentinean Institute for the Study of Climate and Its Impacts (CNRS-IRD-CONICET-UBA)
170.  Diego Moreira, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmósfera (CIMA/CONICET-UBA); UMI IFAECI (CONICET-CNRS); Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos (FCEN, UBA), Argentina
171.  Giorgia Verri, Cmcc Foundation, Italy
172.  Laura Ruiz-Etcheverry, CIMA CONICET-UBA, Argentina
173.  Nadia Ayoub, LEGOS/CNRS, Toulouse, France
174.  Walter Dragani, Servicio de Hidrografía Naval/ Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
175.  Emma Reyes, Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and forecasting System, SOCIB, Spain
176.  Elisa Berdalet, Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC), Barcelona
177.  Jae-Il Kwon, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Korea
178.  Lauri Laakso, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland
179.  Timo Tamminen, Marine Research Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, Finland
180.  Jukka Seppälä, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland
181.  Rafael Schiller, Fugro, USA
182.  Do-Seong Byun, Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Agency, Republic of Korea
183.  Paulo Relvas, Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, Portugal
184.  Georgios Sylaios, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece 
185.  Fabrice Hernandez, IRD, France
186.  Oscar Garcia, Water Mapping, LLC. USA.
187.  Sarantis Sofianos, University of Athens, Greece
188.  Federico Falcini, CNR, Italy
189.  Fraser Davidson, Fisheries and Oceans Canada & OceanPredict, Canada
190.  Marco Anzidei, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome, Italy
191.  John Wilkin, Rutgers University, New Jersey USA
192.  Patrick Gorringe, SMHI, Sweden
193.  Jay Pearlman Four Bridges, WA USA
194.  Can Chen, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, China
195.  Elva Escobar-Briones, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México
196.  Diego Bruciaferri, Met Office, UK
197.  Clemente Augusto Souza Tanajura, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil
198.  Björn Kjerfve, University of South Carolina, USA
199.  Edmo Campos, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
200.  Mahmud Hasan Ghani, UniBO, Italy
201.  Md. Mazaharul Islam, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh
202.  Giovanni Quattrocchi, Institute for the study of Anthropic Impacts and Sustainability in the marine environment, CNR, Italy
203.Alberto Ribotti, CNR, Italy
204.  Michelle Heupel, Integrated Marine Observing System, Australia
205.  Inmaculada Ruiz Parrado, Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and forecasting System, SOCIB, Spain
206.  Monika Breuch-Moritz, IOC Vicechairperson, Germany
207.  Laura Tuomi, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland
208.Ifremer - JERICO-RI, France
209.Edem Mahu, Department of Marine and Fisheries Sciences, University of Ghana, Ghana
210.Emanuela Clementi, CMCC, Italy
211.Boris Chubarenko, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
212.Antonio Augusto Sepp Neves, Italy
213.Vinayachandran P. N., Indian Institute of Science, India
214.Andrea Cipollone, CMCC, Italy
215.Paulo Relvas, CCMAR/Univ. of Algarve, Portugal

REFERENCES

The Global Coastal Ocean, 2010. The Sea, Harvard University Press, Vol. 13-14A and B, A.R. Robinson and K. Brink editors.